This book discusses a variety of topics related to industrial and applied mathematics, focusing on wavelet theory, sampling theorems, inverse problems and their applications, partial differential equations as a model of real-world problems, computational linguistics, mathematical models and methods for meteorology, earth systems, environmental and medical science, and the oil industry. It features papers presented at the International Conference in Conjunction with 14th Biennial Conference of ISIAM, held at Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India, on 2–4 February 2018. The conference has emerged as an influential forum, bringing together prominent academic scientists, experts from industry, and researchers. The topics discussed include Schrodinger operators, quantum kinetic equations and their application, extensions of fractional integral transforms, electrical impedance tomography, diffuse optical tomography, Galerkin method by using wavelets, a Cauchy problem associated with Korteweg–de Vries equation, and entropy solution for scalar conservation laws. This book motivates and inspires young researchers in the fields of industrial and applied mathematics.