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Sensing of Non-Volatile Memory Demystified

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Research, development, and commercialization of emerging non-volatile memories (NVMs) are being aggressively pursued by the design community to supplement and/or substitute conventional volatile and NV memory technologies that are facing stiff scalability challenges. The emerging NVMs such as Magnetic RAM (MRAM), Spin-Transfer Torque RAM (STTRAM), Resistive RAM (RRAM) and Phase Change Memory (PCM) are already available in market as discreet chips. It has been forecasted by Yole that the emerging NVM market will continue to grow and find several niche applications in health care, banking, and day-to-day computing. One of the key aspects of the functioning of these NVMs is sensing. Since the emerging NVMs possess better reliability and faster access latency, they are positioned to replace embedded higher-level memory such as cache, main memory, and solid-state drives (SSDs). The well-known flash sensing techniques which are latency-intensive are not suitable for emerging NVMs. The sensing techniques for conventional charge-based memories such as SRAM and DRAM cannot be extended to emerging NVMs since majority of these memories are resistive in nature. The emerging NVMs face stiff sensing challenges due to process, voltage and temperature variations, and low operating voltage requirements. The desire to achieve high memory density places further restrictions on sense margin. Many conflicting design trade-offs exist to maximize the sense margin at the cost of area, power, and delay. A focused treatment on the sensing challenges associated with emerging NVMs is required to accelerate their research and development efforts. This is a first book which covers the sensing of emerging NVMs spanning spintronic, resistive, phase-change, and ferroelectric memory technologies.

Challenges such as shrinking margin between resistive states due to intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variations, noise and need for large memory capacity at tighter footprint, lower operating voltages, and faster access latency are discussed in detail in the context of sense amplifier design. Various state-of-the-art resilience enhancement techniques are also presented. The book also investigates the impact of application that poses new challenges and offers new opportunities for reliable sensing.
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