Stem cell biology has gained tremendous interest in the recent years, driven by the hope of finding cures for several diseases through transplantation medicine. Various types of stem cells have been identified from preimplantation embryos, the fetus, placenta and adult. The isolation of human embryonic stem cells has been considered the biggest breakthrough of the 21st century. Some of these stem cell types are charged with ethical controversies although they are versatile and offer tremendous potential for finding cures for incurable diseases. In fact, cures for diabetes, heart diseases, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and many other diseases via stem cell research is expected within the next 10 years. The documentation of the latest information on these various stem cell types is compartmentalized in different journals and texts. This book brings together the state-of-the-art on all the types of stem cells, written by giants in the respective fields. It is hoped that knowledge of one stem cell type will complement the other and much can be learned by interaction. This book is aimed at undergraduates, postgraduates, scientists, embryologists, tissue engineers, doctors and biomedical scientists with an interest in stem cell research. It is different from other texts in that it is very comprehensive, covering all aspects of stem cells. Additionally, all the various chapters are written by renowned scientists in the specific fields. The topics are uniquely treated in that they cover research at the laboratory bench as well as the clinical applications. Many of the chapters carry extensive self-explanatory figures, colored photographs, graphics and tables. Both the editors are also renowned in the stem cell field, and both come from medical disciplines and are senior university academics with excellent track records.