This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of electric refractory materials as exotic materials
(i.e., metallic and semiconducting refractory materials) from fundamental properties to application
in a wide variety of electronics. The metallic ceramics or metalloids are the transition metal
carbides, nitrides, and diborides of groups IV and V. The refractory semiconductors are silicon
carbide, diamond, boron-based semiconductors, wide gap nitrides, and related mixed crystals.
The high melting points and high brittleness of refractory materials make it difficult to prepare
single crystals so use of these materials has been limited by hard coating and cutting tools,
regardless of their electric uses. After the crystal growth techniques—including thin film
growths—were established, such fundamental studies as electronic structures, bonding characters,
and various physical properties were clarified with the development of new electric refractory
Recently ‘‘hard electronics’’ was used in Japan (International Workshop on Hard Electronics
Abstract, 1997) and promised to bring new electronics needed in severe circumstances by
utilizing hard materials (adamantine) that were essentially hard themselves and very hard to
handle. The final goal of hard electronics involves not only high-temperature electronics, but also
various types of electronics that can operate under harsh conditions. Then ‘‘electric refractory
materials’’ would replace ‘‘hard electronic materials.’’
An exploration of electric refractory materials, this book covers developments of blue light-emitting diodes using GaN-based nitrides for laser and high-temperature and -frequency devices. "Electric Refractory Materials" introduces growth and evaluation standards of films and bulk crystals, with consideration of band structure, surface electronic structure, and lattice vibrations. It also covers heat capacity and thermal conductivity, irradiation properties, and selective surfaces. Focusing on diamond material, the book examines its synthesis and characterization as well as its electrical, optical, and conductive properties. The book also discusses the use of silicon carbide, boron compounds, and other material used in electronic and light-emitting devices.
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