The complex behavior of systems in nature is rooted in intricate mechanisms of interaction that often supersede human-made systems in terms of reliability, power efficiency, and computational capacity. Researchers have begun to realize that natural systems are a great source of inspiration for novel algorithms in computation and communication systems. The International Workshop on Natural Computing (IWNC) is a platform that brings together computer scientists, biologists, mathematicians, electronic engineers, physicists, and social scientists to critically assess present findings in the field and to outline future developments in novel and emerging paradigms of computation and computing architectures. This compilation contains the papers from the most recent workshop, held in Himeji, Japan. Presented by scientists of worldwide reputation, the topics include DNA computation, cellular automata, physics and computation, evolutionary computing, neural networks, amoeba-based computing, artificial chemistry, noise-driven computing, chaotic systems, and unconventional models of communication.