Emerging Spatial Information Systems and Applications Spatial information systems were created manually for many years. For example, historically, the source of cholera in London in 1854 was found by John Snow, by mapping where victims of the disease lived. The graph clearly showed them to be close to the Broad Street Pump,1 one of the city’s water wells. Another example is Zipf’s Law,2... Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications With Information Technology A data warehouse consists of a set of materialized views that contain derived data from several data sources. Materialized views are beneficial because they allow efficient retrieval of summary data. However, materialized views need to be refreshed periodically in order to avoid staleness. During a materialized view refresh only changes to the base...
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